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Death and life in Ancient Egypt


Chronology of Ancient Egypt

The following chronological table is based on I. Shaw (ed.), The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt, Oxford 2000, with minor revisions reflecting current state of research, and on M. Kaczanowicz, Egipt. Ostatnie wieki imperium (747-332 p.n.e.), Poznań 2019 (for the Late Period). Kushite 25th Dynasty is here included to the Late Period (and not to the Third Intermediate Period, as sometimes assumed), which means that also the 24th Dynasty (the two kings of which reigned during the Kushite rule) is located likewise. There are four conventions of writing the numbers of dynasties used in Egyptological literature (e.g. 12th Dynasty = Dynasty 12 = Dynasty XII = Twelfth Dynasty). Direct dates in years BC, especially for the time before the New Kingdom, should be taken as approximate. Number, names, and length of reigns of many rulers (especially those of the so-called intermediate periods) are sometimes disputable. Many names of pharaohs are commonly known in their Greek versions (e.g. Khufu = Gr. Cheops; Khafra = Gr. Chephren; Menkaura = Gr. Mycerinus; Senusret = Gr. Sesostris; Amenhotep = Gr. Amenophis). Present-day transcriptions of the Egyptian names occur in several, better or worse, variants (e. g. Thutmose = Thotmes = Tuthmosis = Thutmosis = Djehutymes; Unas = Unis = Wenis, Senusret = Senwosret, etc.). Choosing one of them depends on the accepted convention. The list below contains the most important names of the pharaohs. The question mark signalizes doubts concerning the existence, or the pronunciation of the ruler’s name. Names of women reigning as pharaohs are given in italics.

 

PREDYNASTIC PERIOD

c. 5300-3000 BC

Lower Egyptian Neolithic  

5300-4000

Maadi Cultural Complex

4000-3200

Badarian Period 

4400-4000

Naqada I  

4000-3500

Naqada II    

3500-3200

Naqada III/Dyn. 0 i.a.: Scorpion I, Iri-Hor, Ka (Sekhen), Scorpion II, Narmer  

3200-3000

EARLY DYNASTIC PERIOD    

3000-2686

1st Dyn. Aha, Djer, Djet, Merneith, Den, Anedjib, Semerkhet, Qa'a   

3000-2890

2nd Dyn. Hetepsekhemwy, Raneb, Nynetjer, Uneg, Sened, Sekhemib,
Peribsen, 
Khasekhem, (=?) Khasekhemwy  

2890-2686
OLD KINGDOM  2686-2160

3rd Dyn. Netjerikhet (Djeser), Sekhemkhet, Sanakht (Nebka), Khaba, Huni 

2686-2613

4th Dyn. Sneferu, Khufu, Djedefra, Khafra , Baufra? (Baka?), Menkaura, Shepseskaf   

2613-2494

5th Dyn. Userkaf, Sahura, Neferirkara, Shepseskara, Raneferef, Nyuserra, Menkauhor,
Djedkara Isesi, Unis   

2494-2345

6th Dyn. Teti, Userkara?, Pepi I, Merenra Nemtyemsaf, Pepi II, Merenra II?, Meryptah? 

2345-2181

7-8th  Dyn. i.a. Neferkara, Uadjkara Pepiseneb, Neferkamin Inu, Kakara Ibi, Neferkauhor  

2181-2160
FIRST INTERMEDIATE PERIOD   2160-2055

9-10th Dyn. i.a.: Khety I, Neferkare Nebkaure, Khety II, Meryhathor, Khety III, Merykara,
Khety IV   

2160-2055

11th Dyn./Thebes only/ Mentuhotep I, Intef I, Intef II, Intef III   

2125-2055
MIDDLE KINGDOM   2055-1650

11th Dyn. /all Egypt/ Mentuhotep II, Mentuhotep III, Mentuhotep IV 

2055-1985

12th Dyn. Amenemhat I, Senusret I, Amenemhat II, Senusret II, Senusret III,
Amenemhat III, Amenemhat IV, Sobekneferu 

1985-1773

13th Dyn. Ugaf, Sebekhotep II, Iikherneferet Neferhotep, Ameni-intef-amenemhat, Khendjer, 
Awibra Hor, Merneferra Ay, Sebekhotep III, Neferhotep I, Sahathor, Sebekhotep IV,
Sebekhotep V

1773-1650

14th Dyn. Several local rulers contemporary with Dynasties 13th and 15th

1773-1650
SECOND INTERMEDIATE PERIOD 1650-1550

15th Dyn. (Hyksos) i.a. Sheshi, Sekerher, Yacobher, Khyan, Aauserra Apopi I, Khamudi     

1650-1550

16th Dyn. Theban rulers contemporary with 15th Dynasty  

 1650-1580

17th Dyn. i.a.: Rahotep, Sobekemsaf I, Intef VI, Intef VII, Intef VIII,  Sobekemsaf II,
Senakhtenra Ahmose I, Sekenenra Taa, Kamose

1580-1550
NEW KINGDOM 1550-1069

18th Dyn. Ahmose II, Amenhotep I, Thutmose I, Thutmose II, Hatshepsut,
Thutmose III, Amenhotep II, Thutmose IV, Amenhotep III, Amenhotep IV - Akhenaten,
Smenkhkara, Meritaton?, Tutankhamun, Ay, 
Horemheb

1550-1295

19th Dyn. Ramesses I, Sety I, Ramesses II, Merenptah, Amenmessu, Sety II, Saptah,
Tauseret  

1295-1186

20th Dyn. Setnakht, Ramesses III, Ramesses IV, Ramesses V, Ramesses VI,
Ramesses VII, Ramesses VIII, Ramesses IX, Ramesses X, Ramesses XI

1186-1069
THIRD INTERMEDIATE PERIOD   1069-664

21st Dyn. Smendes, Neferkara Amenemes, Psusennes I, Amenemope, Osorkon the Elder,
Siamun, Psusennes II 

1069-945

22nd  Dyn. (Libyan) Sheshonq I, Osorkon I, Takelot I, Osorkon II, Sheshonq II, Takelot II,
Sheshonq III, Pamay, Sheshonq V, Osorkon IV

945-715

23rd Dyn. (Libyan) Pedubastis, Iuput I, Sheshonq IV, Osorkon III, Takelot III, 
Rudamon?, Peftjauawybast, Iuput II   

818-715
LATE PERIOD 747-332

24th Dyn. Tefnakht, Bakenrenef  

727-715

25th Dyn. (Kushite) Piankhi, Shebitqo, Shabaqo, Taharqa, Tanutamani 

747-656

26th Dyn. (Saite) Psammetik I, Necho, Psammetik II, Apries, Amasis, Psammetik III 

664-525

27th Dyn. (1st Persian Period) Cambyses, Darius I, Xerxes I, Artaxerxes I, Darius II,
Artaxerxes II   

525-404

28th Dyn. Amyrtaios    

404-399

29th Dyn. Nepherites I, Akhoris, Psamuthis, Nepherites II  

399-380

30th Dyn. Nectanebo I, Teos, Nectanebo II   

380-343

31st Dyn. (2nd Persian Period) Artaxerxes III Ochus, Arses, Darius III Codoma

343-332
GREEK PERIOD   332-30

Macedonian Dynasty   

332-305

Ptolemaic Dynasty     

305-30
ROMAN PERIOD  30 BC - 395 AD
BYZANTINE (COPTIC) PERIOD    395-641 AD

 

In 641 AD Egypt was conquered by the Arabs led by Amr.

 

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